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The UK’s first 3D printed parts on passenger trains


Angel Trains, Stratasys, engineering consultancy DB ESG and Chiltern Railways have joined forces to trial the first 3D printed parts ever deployed within an in-service passenger train in the UK. These parts include four passenger armrests and seven grab handles, which have been installed on Chiltern Railways trains.

The trial’s success to date demonstrates how 3D printing can help train operators accelerate the replacement of obsolete parts, enabling them to get vehicles back into service quicker and better maintain their trains – improving the quality of service for passengers.

The cross industry collaboration aims to leverage 3D printing to help overcome issues around the replacement of obsolete parts across the UK rail industry. Unlike the automotive industry, where vehicles from household brands are mass produced in their millions each year, the number of fleets in the rail industry are comparatively very small and, in some cases, over 30 years old. This combination presents several challenges for train operators, especially when it comes to vehicle maintenance and part replacement.

‘In recent times, we have seen growing concern amongst operators that sourcing replacement parts for older train fleets at a reasonable cost and in a short timeframe is proving increasingly difficult,’ explained James Brown, data and performance engineer, Angel Trains.

‘The problem is that traditional manufacturing methods only make it cost effective to produce high volumes of spare parts, even though an operator may only need a few obsolete train parts replaced. In addition, lead times can take months. This is why we have teamed up with DB ESG and Stratasys, showing how operators can overcome these hurdles by using 3D printing to produce the exact amount of parts they need at a fraction of the time and cost of traditional methods.’

Such cost and time efficiencies are exemplified by the armrest feature currently in-service with Chiltern Railways.According to James, the lead time for this part using conventional manufacturing methods would be approximately four months. However, with Stratasys FDM 3D printing, the final armrest can be produced within one week, representing a decrease of almost 94%. He believes that savings of up to 50% per part will be achievable.

Similarly, in the case of the grab handle device, the replacement part was obsolete and the original supplier’s business was no longer in operation. As a result, to make more of these parts a new manufacturing tool would have been required, costing up to £15,000 and with a production lead time of two and a half months. With 3D printing, the seven grab handles required were produced at a significantly lower cost per part in three weeks.

‘This is an exciting time for the UK rail industry,’ continued James. ‘With this technology, train operators can be much more responsive to replacing passenger facing parts that get damaged or vandalised. A 3D printed replacement part can be produced on-demand and installed immediately. With low volume production now achievable, we are also starting to explore how we can leverage 3D printing to customise interiors that are better suited to the passenger commute. For example, we have tested 3D printing seat back tables with braille informing the passenger that the toilet is ten rows back from that particular seat. This level of customisation is unprecedented and can only be enabled by 3D printing, offering the potential to significantly improve both the servicing of trains and the passenger experience in the future.’

The final parts were 3D printed using Stratasys’ FDM based Fortus 450mc Production 3D Printer in Ultem 9085 resin, which was certified to the rail industry’s fire, smoke and toxicity standards.

Following the success of the trial to date, the group has now established a repeatable process that produces parts compliant with rail industry standards and suitable for use in passenger vehicles. With positive responses received from train operators, the three-way consortium is now set to commence its next trial with Great Western Railway, which plans to integrate 3D printed parts within a selection of trains over the next few months.

Yann Rageul, head of strategic accounts for EMEA at Stratasys, concluded: ‘Having successfully proven the viability of 3D printed parts within trains in the UK, the impact on the traditional rail industry supply chain can be transformative. Train operators can eradicate the issues associated with physical inventories by building a library of digital inventory that can be 3D printed as and when they need it, wherever they need and in the exact quantity required. We are witnessing a new era of true on-demand production with no waste.’

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